Late Friday, the CDC, public health and regulatory officials in several states, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) reported that they are investigating a multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections.

As of October 22, 2020, a total of 10 people infected with the outbreak strain of Listeria monocytogenes have been reported from three states – New York, Massachusetts and Florida.

Listeria samples from ill people were collected from August 6, 2020, to October 3, 2020. Ill people range in age from 40 to 89 years, with a median age of 81 years. Eighty percent of ill people are female. All 10 ill people were hospitalized. One death has been reported from Florida.

Epidemiologic evidence shows that deli meat is a likely source of this outbreak.

State and local public health officials interviewed ill people about the foods they ate in the month before they became ill. Of the nine people interviewed, all reported eating Italian-style deli meats, such as salami, mortadella, and prosciutto. They reported purchasing prepackaged deli meats and meats sliced at deli counters at various locations.

Listeria bacteria can spread easily to other foods and surfaces. The bacteria in a contaminated deli product may spread to other deli meats and cheeses in shared display cases or equipment at deli counters.  A traceback investigation is ongoing to determine if there is a specific type of deli meat or a common supplier linked to illness.

What to know about Listeria?

People who are higher risk of getting sick from Listeria should avoid eating deli meats, unless they are heated to an internal temperature of 165°F or until steaming hot just before serving.

Symptoms of Listeria monocytogenes usually begin one to four weeks after eating the contaminated food.  However, those who become ill have reported symptoms as early as one to seventy days after consuming the tainted food.

What are symptoms of Listeria monocytogenes?

  • Fever
  • Muscle ache
  • Nausea or diarrhea

What are the symptoms if the infection spreads to the nervous system? 

  • Headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Confusion
  • Loss of balance
  • Convulsions

Pregnant women experience mild, flu-like symptoms. However, Listeria infection during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, infection of the newborn, or stillbirth.

The Marler Clark Listeria lawyers have unmatched experience representing victims of Listeria. Our Listeria lawyers have represented thousands of victims of notable Listeria outbreaks such as the 2011 Jensen Farms Listeria outbreak where over 33 people died, the 2010 Sangar Fresh Cut Produce Listeria outbreak, the 2007 Whittier Farms Listeria outbreak, the 2012 Marte brand Fescolina ricotta salata cheese Listeria outbreak, the 2016 Dole Lettuce Listeria outbreak and the 2017 Vulto Creamery Listeria outbreak.  We are presently assisting in a Listeria outbreak in South Africa that sickened over 1,000 and killed over 200.

More Resources

Learn more about Listeria

Family Health Guide About Listeria infection, or Listeriosis

CDC, public health and regulatory officials in 14 states, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration investigated a multistate outbreak of Cyclospora infections.

As of September 23, 2020, a total of 701 people with laboratory-confirmed Cyclospora infections associated with this outbreak were reported from 14 states: GA, IL, IA, KS, MA, MI, MN, MO, NE, ND, OH, PA, SD, WI. Exposures were reported in 13 states (IL, IA, KS, MA, MI, MN, MO, NE, ND, OH, PA, SD, WI).

Illnesses started on dates ranging from May 11, 2020 to July 24, 2020. Ill people ranged in age from 11 to 92 years with a median age of 57; 51% were female.

38 (5%) people were hospitalized. No deaths were reported in this outbreak.

Epidemiologic evidence and product traceback indicated that bagged salad mix containing iceberg lettuce, carrots, and red cabbage produced by Fresh Express was a likely source of this outbreak.
Fresh Express brand and private label brand salad products produced at its Streamwood, IL facility that contained iceberg lettuce, red cabbage, and/or carrots on June 27, 2020.

In Canada, as of July 8, 2020, there are 37 confirmed cases of Cyclospora illness linked to this outbreak in three provinces: Ontario (26), Quebec (10) and Newfoundland and Labrador (1). Individuals became sick between mid-May and mid-June 2020. One individual has been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between 21 and 70 years of age. The majority of cases (76%) are female.

Some of the individuals who became sick reported having eaten certain Fresh Express brand salad products containing iceberg lettuce, red cabbage and carrots before their illnesses occurred. The source of illness for the remaining individuals continues to be under investigation.

Cyclospora:   Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Cyclospora outbreaks. The Cyclospora Attorneys and Lawyers have represented victims of Cyclospora and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $750 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.

If you or a family member became ill with a Cyclospora infection after consuming food and you are interested in pursuing a legal claim, contact the Marler Clark Cyclospora attorneys for a free case evaluation.

Epidemiologic and traceback evidence showed that red onions from Thomson International Inc. were the likely source of this outbreak. Other onion types (such as white, yellow, or sweet yellow) were also likely to be contaminated because the onions were grown and harvested together.

In Canada there were 515 confirmed cases of Salmonella Newport illness linked to this outbreak in the following provinces: British Columbia (121), Alberta (293), Saskatchewan (35), Manitoba (26), Ontario (14), Quebec (25) and Prince Edward Island (1). Individuals became sick between mid-June and late-August 2020. Seventy-nine individuals were hospitalized. Three people died, but Salmonella did not contribute to the cause of these deaths. Individuals who became ill were between 1 and 100 years of age. The majority of cases (54%) were female.

In the United States a total of 1,127 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Newport were reported from 48 states. Illnesses started on dates ranging from June 19, 2020, to September 11, 2020 . Ill people ranged in age from less than 1 to 102 years, with a median age of 41. Fifty-eight percent of ill people were female. Of 705 ill people with information available, 167 people were hospitalized. No deaths were reported.

FDA and states reviewed records where ill people purchased or ate onions and foods containing onions. This traceback investigation identified Thomson International Inc. as the likely source of red onions.

The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) also investigated an outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections in Canada that was related genetically by WGS to the U.S. outbreak. Their investigation identified red onions from Thomson International Inc. as the likely source of their outbreak.

On August 1, 2020, Thomson International Inc. recalled all red, yellow, white, and sweet yellow onions because they may be contaminated with Salmonella. Other companies also recalled onions or foods made with recalled onions. See the full list of recalled products. Consumers, restaurants, and retailers should not eat, serve, or sell recalled onions and products.

As of October 8, 2020, this outbreak appears to be over. FDA is continuing their investigation to find the root cause of this outbreak.

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Salmonella outbreaks. The Salmonella lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Salmonella and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $750 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Our Salmonella lawyers have litigated Salmonella cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as cantaloupe, tomatoes, ground turkey, salami, sprouts, cereal, peanut butter, and food served in restaurants.  The law firm has brought Salmonella lawsuits against such companies as Cargill, ConAgra, Peanut Corporation of America, Sheetz, Taco Bell, Subway and Wal-Mart.

If you or a family member became ill with a Salmonella infection, including Reactive Arthritis or Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), after consuming food and you’re interested in pursuing a legal claim, contact the Marler Clark Salmonella attorneys for a free case evaluation.

Additional Resources:

A total of 101 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis were reported from 17 states.

Illnesses started on dates ranging from June 29, 2020, to August 27, 2020. Ill people ranged in age from 1 to 92 years, with a median age of 43. Sixty-four percent of ill people were female. Of 90 ill people with available information, 28 hospitalizations were reported. No deaths were reported.

In Canada total, there were 57 confirmed cases of Salmonella Enteritidis illness linked to this outbreak in two provinces: Ontario (41) and Quebec (16). Individuals became sick between June and August 2020. Twelve individuals were hospitalized. No deaths were reported. Individuals who became ill were between 0 and 91 years of age. The majority of cases (60%) were female.

Whole genome sequencing analysis showed that an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in Canada was related genetically to this outbreak in the United States. This means that people in both outbreaks were likely to share a common source of infection.

Epidemiologic and traceback evidence indicated that peaches packed or supplied by Prima Wawona or Wawona Packing Company were the likely source of this outbreak.

The FDA and regulatory officials in several states collected records from grocery stores where ill people reported buying peaches. These records showed that loose and bagged peaches distributed by Wawona Packing Company, LLC, were sold at multiple grocery stores where ill people bought peaches.

On August 22, 2020, Prima Wawona recalled bagged and bulk, or loose, peaches that they supplied to retailers nationwide. See FDA’s notice for a list of recalled products. Recalled products are past their shelf life and should no longer be available in stores.

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Salmonella outbreaks. The Salmonella lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Salmonella and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $750 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Our Salmonella lawyers have litigated Salmonella cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as cantaloupe, tomatoes, ground turkey, salami, sprouts, cereal, peanut butter, and food served in restaurants.  The law firm has brought Salmonella lawsuits against such companies as Cargill, ConAgra, Peanut Corporation of America, Sheetz, Taco Bell, Subway and Wal-Mart.

If you or a family member became ill with a Salmonella infection, including Reactive Arthritis or Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), after consuming food and you’re interested in pursuing a legal claim, contact the Marler Clark Salmonella attorneys for a free case evaluation.

Additional Resources:

Former Blue Bell Creameries President Charged In Connection With 2015 Ice Cream Listeria Contamination

A Texas grand jury charged the former president of ice cream manufacturer Blue Bell Creameries L.P. with wire fraud and conspiracy in connection with an alleged scheme to cover up the company’s sales of Listeria-tainted ice cream in 2015, the Justice Department announced today.

In an indictment filed in federal court in Austin, Texas, former Blue Bell president Paul Kruse was charged with seven counts of wire fraud and conspiracy to commit wire fraud related to his alleged efforts to conceal from customers what the company knew about Listeria contamination in certain Blue Bell products. According to the indictment, Texas state officials notified Blue Bell in February 2015 that two ice cream products from the company’s Brenham, Texas, factory tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes, a dangerous pathogen that can lead to serious illness or death in vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, newborns, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems.  Kruse allegedly orchestrated a scheme to deceive certain Blue Bell customers, including by directing employees to remove potentially contaminated products from store freezers without notifying retailers or consumers about the real reason for the withdrawal.  The indictment alleges that Kruse directed employees to tell customers who asked about the removal that there was an unspecified issue with a manufacturing machine.  The company did not immediately recall the products or issue any formal communication to inform customers about the potential Listeria contamination.

“American consumers trust that the individuals who lead food manufacturing companies will put the public safety before profits,”  said Acting Assistant Attorney General Jeffrey Bossert Clark of the Justice Department’s Civil Division. “The Department of Justice will take appropriate action against those who ship contaminated products and choose not to tell consumers about known risks.”

“U.S. consumers rely on food producers and suppliers to ensure the safety of the nation’s food supply.  The charges announced today show that if an individual violates food safety rules or conceals relevant information, we will seek to hold them accountable,”  said Judy McMeekin, Pharm.D., Associate Commissioner for Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). “We will continue to investigate and bring to justice those who jeopardize public health.”

“The Defense Criminal Investigative Service’s number one priority is the safety and well-being of America’s warfighters and their families,”  said Michael Mentavlos, Special Agent-in-Charge of the Department of Defense Criminal Investigative Service (DCIS) Southwest Field Office.  “The results of this investigation are an example of DCIS’ determination to enforce food safety standards, as required by Defense Department contracts.  These standards not only protect individuals, but are paramount to military readiness.”

The indictment, returned Tuesday in U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas, further alleges that March 2015 tests conducted by the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) linked the strain of Listeria in one of the Blue Bell ice cream products to a strain that sickened five patients at a Kansas hospital with listeriosis, the severe illness caused by ingestion of Listeria-contaminated food.  The FDA, CDC, and Blue Bell issued public recall notifications on March 13, 2015.  Subsequent tests confirmed Listeria contamination in a product made at another Blue Bell facility in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, which resulted in a second recall announcement on March 23, 2015. Additional positive test results ultimately led Blue Bell to recall all ice cream products in April 2015.

Blue Bell pleaded guilty in a related case in May to two counts of distributing adulterated food products in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. On Sept. 17, 2020, the court sentenced the company to pay criminal penalties totaling $17.25 million. Blue Bell also agreed to pay an additional $2.1 million to resolve civil False Claims Act allegations regarding ice cream products manufactured under insanitary conditions and sold to federal facilities, including the military.  The total $19.35 million in fine, forfeiture, and civil settlement payments constitutes the second largest-ever amount paid in resolution of a food safety matter.

Blue Bell temporarily closed all of its plants in late April 2015 to clean and update its facilities. Since re-opening its facilities in late 2015, Blue Bell has taken significant steps to enhance sanitation processes and enact a program to test products for Listeria prior to shipment.

Kruse was previously charged by criminal information on May 1, 2020, during the temporary closure of grand juries in the Western District of Texas due to the COVID-19 pandemic.  That criminal information later was dismissed without opposition from the government, and the new indictment returned by the grand jury, which has resumed operations, now sets out the charges against Kruse.

The indictment filed against Kruse merely alleges that crimes have been committed.  All defendants are presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.

Patrick Hearn and Matt Lash of the Civil Division’s Consumer Protection Branch are prosecuting the case with assistance from Shannon Singleton of the FDA’s Office of Chief Counsel.  The criminal investigation was conducted by the FDA’s Office of Criminal Investigations and the DCIS.

Registration is now open for the Virtual Food Safety Summit 2020 South Africa, scheduled for 3rd November 2020. This event is a joint venture hosted by Food Focus and Anelich Consulting.

It will be hosted by professor Lucia Anelich, director of Anelich Consulting, and Linda Jackson, director of Food Focus.

With 2020’s widespread global disruption because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the food industry was not spared. In times of crisis, more than ever, the provision of safe, affordable, and nutritious food is key to supporting health, according to the event organizers. Food safety, food security, the food supply chain, and economic challenges, amongst others are all considerations that merit attention.

“As we approach the end of 2020, there is no better time to reflect on the disruptions and challenges that the COVID-19 pandemic has taught us. The provision of safe, affordable, and nutritious food remains key to supporting health, particularly in times of crisis when food (shortages) are often experienced. Join us as we explore the many challenges that COVID-19 has brought to the food industry, together with opportunities it has created, and lessons learned as we prepare for food safety in 2021.” said professor Lucia Anelich, food safety expert and owner of Anelich Consulting.

This food safety summit is designed to do two things — first is to reflect on the emergency preparedness procedures  used this year. For those who have not had to use them, this gives us the ideal opportunity to review what we have in theory and ensure that we have a feasible solution should it be needed.

“Emergency planning has always been part of a food safety management system, but fortunately we very seldom need to deal with emergency situations on a real basis. . .  until 2020. In an unprecedented year, where we have had to deal with a pandemic, food security issues, a potentially disrupted supply chain, staff wellbeing, and many other real emergency situations, we have been taught a lot about our food safety management systems and where our potential weaknesses are,” says Linda Jackson, founder, and owner of Food Focus.

The second aim of the event is to celebrate industry successes. Though the year has been marred with many disappointments and a great deal of stress, the food industry has been operating in full force as an essential service from Day 1 of lockdown and has proved its resilience and courage, the event announcement said. This summit provides an opportunity to celebrate and to thank the many food safety heroes who have made a difference this year.

“Besides all of this,” add Anelich and Jackson, “achieving our targets for implementing the Sustainable Development Goals of 2030 has perhaps been hampered due to the pandemic and this summit will provide a chance to review our progress to determine whether we are still on track.”

In line with social distancing practices and other safety measures, the event is being held virtually this year but is designed to keep attendees engaged and connected throughout. Presentations, Q&A sessions, and virtual sponsor meetings will be part of the event.

The summit features a line-up of speakers, both international and domestic.

Speakers Include: 

  • Bill Marler, attorney and food safety advocate, MarlerClark
  • Frank Yiannas, Deputy Commissioner, Food Policy and Response – U.S. FDA
  • Wayne Anderson, Director of Food Science, and Standards – Food Safety Authority of Ireland
  • Kalmia Kniel, President – International Association for Food Protection
  • Dawie Roodt, chief economist – Efficient Group
  • Kaarin Goodburn, secretary – Chilled Food Association
  • John Donaghy, head of Food Safety (Microbiology/Allergens) Corporate Operations – Quality
    Management – Société des Produits Nestlé S.A.
  • Professor Lucia Anelich – Anelich Consulting
  • Elsabe Mathee, FSSC Foundation
  • Richard Swannell, WRAP
  • Linda Jackson, Food Focus
  • Gerhard Neethling, Red Meat Industry Forum
  • Lianne Jones, Country Manager South Africa – Produce Marketing Association
  • Matlou Setati, FSI Executive – Consumer Goods Council of South Africa
  • Jane Nock, In2Foods
  • Karin Carstensen, regulatory affairs – Woolworths
  • Professor Leon Gorris, independent food safety expert – Food Safety Futures
  • Proffessor Michelle Danyluk, food science – The University of Florida
  • Professor Ryk Lues, Director – CAFSaB, CUT
  • JP. v. Lewinski, AIG Global Insurers
  • Kevin O’Brien, risk executive – SPAR Group

To register for the event, visit https://foodsafetysummit.co.za/

For assistance, send email to: events@foodfocus.co.za 

Over the years, I have had a disagreement or two with the CDC, but I never, ever thought for a moment that the premier public health agency in the world was anything less than that.  Everyone interested in any aspect of public health, and specifically the COVID-19 pandemic should read the letter below.

From the pages of The Washington Post as first reported by USA Today:

WILLIAM FOEGE, a legendary figure in public health who helped devise the strategy that curtailed smallpox in West and Central Africa in the late 1960s and who led the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan, wrote a letter Sept. 23 to the current CDC director, Robert Redfield. The letter has now been disclosed by USA Today and should be read by everyone concerned by President Trump’s dreadful response to the coronavirus pandemic and his corrosive politicization of public health.

Foege-Letter

It is true, “Everything Tump Touches, Dies”.

Peaches sicken at least 126 in the US and Canada – Onions sicken at least 1,527 in the US and Canada

Wawona Packing Peaches: The FDA and CDC reported that as of August 27, 2020, a total of 78 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis have been reported from 12 states. Illnesses started on dates ranging from June 29, 2020, to August 3, 2020. Ill people range in age from 1 to 92 years, with a median age of 44. Sixty-four percent of ill people are female. Of 67 ill people with available information, 23 hospitalizations have been reported. No deaths have been reported.

Whole genome sequencing analysis shows that an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in Canada is related genetically to this outbreak in the United States. This means that people in both of these outbreaks are likely to share a common source of infection.

As of September 2, 2020, there have been 48 confirmed case of Salmonella Enteritidis illness linked to this outbreak in two provinces: Ontario (32) and Quebec (16). Individuals became sick between June and August 2020. Eleven individuals have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported. Individuals who became ill are between 0 and 91 years of age. The majority of cases (58%) are female.

Epidemiologic evidence indicates that peaches are the likely source of this outbreak. This investigation is ongoing to identify other retailers that may have sold contaminated peaches packed or supplied by Prima Wawona or Wawona Packing Company LLC.

Thomson International Onions: The FDA and CDC reported that as of August 31, 2020, a total of 1,012 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Newport have been reported from 47 states. Illnesses started on dates ranging from June 19, 2020, to August 11, 2020. Ill people range in age from less than 1 to 102 years, with a median age of 40. Fifty-seven percent of ill people are female. Of 581 ill people with information available, 136 hospitalizations have been reported. No deaths have been reported.

Whole genome sequencing analysis shows that an outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections in Canada is related genetically to this outbreak in the United States. This means that people in both of these outbreaks are likely to share a common source of infection.

In total, there were 515 confirmed cases of Salmonella Newport illness linked to this outbreak in the following provinces: British Columbia (121), Alberta (293), Saskatchewan (35), Manitoba (26), Ontario (14), Quebec (25) and Prince Edward Island (1). Individuals became sick between mid-June and late-August 2020. Seventy-nine individuals were hospitalized. Three people died, but Salmonella did not contribute to the cause of these deaths. Individuals who became ill were between 1 and 100 years of age. The majority of cases (54%) were female.

Epidemiologic and traceback information indicates that red onions are a likely source of this outbreak. Due to the way onions are grown and harvested, other onion types, such as, white, yellow, or sweet yellow, are also likely to be contaminated. The traceback information collected from several of these illness clusters identified Thomson International, Inc., of Bakersfield, California, as a likely source of red onions. Due to the way onions are grown and harvested, other onion types, such as white, yellow, or sweet yellow, are also likely to be contaminated. Traceback is ongoing to determine if other onions are linked to the outbreak.

Some would say, why it took so long?

Canada Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is now requiring testing of romaine lettuce from the Salinas Valley, but not from Yuma.

Romaine lettuce imported from the United States has been associated with several outbreaks of foodborne E. coli O157:H7 illnesses in Canada and the USA. Food safety investigations and trace-backs from U.S. authorities have identified a recurring geographical area as the source of the outbreaks. This area encompasses the California Salinas valley counties of Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, San Benito and Monterey.

Due to the reoccurring nature of the outbreaks in Canada the CFIA is implementing temporary import conditions for romaine lettuce originating from these growing areas. This import requirement will require importers of romaine lettuce from the implicated regions in the USA to provide a Certificate of Analysis for each shipment to demonstrate that the product does not contain detectable levels of E. coli O157:H7. This measure is in effect for all shipments arriving in Canada between October 7 and December 31, 2020.

The CFIA will allow the importation of romaine lettuce from the USA if:

  • the importer has a valid Safe Food for Canadians license
  • the importer indicates the geographical origin of the romaine lettuce
  • romaine lettuce grown in California has been handled by a certified member of the California LGMA
  • romaine lettuce grown in Arizona has been handled by a shipper that is a certified member of the Arizona LGMA
  • romaine lettuce from the California counties of Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Benito and Monterey is accompanied by a certificate of analysis demonstrating that sampling was conducted according to the sampling and testing requirements and the product does not contain detectable levels of E. coli O157:H7
  • if a declaration of origin of the romaine lettuce is not available, a certification of analysis must be provided

Why not Yuma?

As of September 24, 2020, a total of 41 people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Stanley have been reported from 10 states – Arizona, California, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, New Jersey, New York City, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.

Illnesses started on dates ranging from January 21, 2020, to August 26, 2020. Ill people range in age from 2 to 74 years, with a median age of 27. Sixty-two percent of ill people are female. Of 32 ill people with information available, 4 hospitalizations have been reported. No deaths have been reported.

Epidemiologic and traceback information show that wood ear mushrooms distributed by Wismettac Asian Foods, Inc., are the likely source of this outbreak.

The California Department of Public Health collected dried fungus at one of the restaurants linked to an illness cluster for testing. Testing identified Salmonella in a sample of dried fungus distributed by Wismettac Asian Foods, Inc. WGS analysis is being done to determine if the Salmonella identified in the dried fungus is the same as the Salmonella from ill people.

On September 24, 2020, Wismettac Asian Foods, Inc., issued a recallof all Shirakiku imported dried fungus after the California Department of Public Health found Salmonella in the product.