During 1975–2012, CDC surveillance identified 1,680 trichinellosis cases in the United States with implicated food items; among these cases, 1,219 were attributed to consumption of raw or pork products, and 461 were attributed to nonpork products. Although trichinellosis in the United States has historically been associated with consumption of pork, multiple nonporcine species of wild game also are competent hosts for Trichinella spp. and have been collectively implicated in the majority of trichinellosis cases since the late 1990s. During July 2016–May 2017, the Alaska Division of Public Health (ADPH) investigated two outbreaks of trichinellosis in the Norton Sound region associated with consumption of raw or undercooked walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) meat; five cases were identified in each of the two outbreaks. These were the first multiple-case outbreaks of walrus-associated trichinellosis in Alaska since 1992.
Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease that results from consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected by roundworm species in the genus Trichinella. Early signs and symptoms occur 1–2 days after ingestion and include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Systemic signs and symptoms, which typically occur 1–2 weeks after ingestion and last for 1–8 weeks, include facial and periorbital edema, fatigue, fever (remittent) and chills, headache, muscle soreness, pruritus (with or without a rash), nausea, difficulty coordinating movement, neurologic complications, and cardiopulmonary impairment.